Words with ใ- (4) สะใภ้//sàphái

สะใภ้//sàphái simply means ‘female in-law’.

For example:

Wife of younger brother = น้องสะใภ้//Nórng sàphái (regardless of her age – even if she is older than you, she is still regarded as such.)

Wife of older uncle = ป้าสะใภ้//Pâh sàphái

Wife of father’s younger brother = อาสะใภ้//Ah sàphái

What about ‘male in-law’?

Husband of older sister = พี่เขย//Phêe khoĕi

Husband of older aunt = ลุงเขย//Lung khoĕi

Husband of mother’s younger brother = น้าเขย//Náh khoĕi

Ok speaking of relative terms, let’s see below for a really basic Thai family tree:

Slide1Hope this is helpful for a beginner. Of course, as these people get married, and have children, things get more complicated. We can discuss about this at a later time.

Words with ใ- (3) ให้//hâi

**Simplified version**

***This is targeted at basic user of Thai language.***

Many times, I have received a few questions from students who are at the beginner/basic level to explain words like ให้//hâi; ที่//thêe; ก็//kôr. Truth is, while I am able to explain and/or give examples to them, certain topics are just beyond basic level. I would prefer to let students be exposed to those different variations before trying to come to a conclusion. Learning by examples is always easier than memorizing just the meaning.

Here we go, today we are going to look at ให้//hâi, the third word that is spelt with ใ-

Somebody + hâi + something + to somebody else

เขาให้ดอกไม้(กับ)ฉัน

Khăo hâi dòrk mái (kàb) chǎn

He gives flowers to me.

แม่ให้เงิน(กับ)ลูก

Mâe hâi ngern (kàb) lôok

Mom gives money to (her) child.

Somebody + action + something + hâi + somebody else

เขาซื้อดอกไม้ให้ฉัน

Khǎo séu dòrk mái hâi chǎn

He buys flowers for me. / He buys me flowers.

ฉันสอนการบ้านให้น้องชาย

Chǎn sŏrn kaan bâhn hâi nórng chaai

I teach (my) younger brother homework. / I teach homework to (my) younger brother.

The two usages above are probably ones that you hear most of the time. Nonetheless, it also possible to have the following structure:

ให้//hâi + complete sentence.

แม่ให้ฉันไปซื้อของที่ตลาด

Mâe hâi chǎn pai séu khŏrng thêe tàlàad

Mom asked me to go buy things at the market.

เพื่อนไม่ช่วยทำรายงาน ฉันก็เลยให้เพื่อนเป็นคนพูดหน้าชั้นเรียน

Pheûan mâi chuâi tham raai ngaan, chǎn kôr loei hâi pheûan pen khon phôod nâh chán rian

My friend didn’t help with the report; that’s why I asked her to be the one doing the presentation.

These two examples above can be seen as either someone delegating a task to someone else, or someone “ordering” someone else to do something. While negative form suggests a prohibition from doing something, see examples below:

แม่ไม่ให้น้องสาวกลับบ้านดึก เพราะมันอันตราย

Mâe mâi hâi nórng saǎo klàb bâhn dèuk phrór man antàraai

Mom doesn’t let/allow (my) younger sister return home late at night because it is dangerous.

น้องชายไม่ให้เพื่อนยืมของเล่น

Nórng chaai mâi hâi pheûan yeum khŏrng lên

(My) younger brother doesn’t let his friend borrow his toys.

Let’s see other variations:

พี่ชายอยากให้ฉันช่วยซื้อดอกไม้ให้แฟน

Phêe chaai yàhk hâi chǎn chuâi séu dòrk mái hâi faen

(My) elder brother wants me to help him buy flowers for his girlfriend.

::Here:: อยากให้//yàhk hâi means someone wants someone else to do something.

เขาขอให้ฉันคบกับเขา

Khăo khŏr hâi chăn khób kàb khǎo

He requests/asks for me to date him.

::Here:: ขอให้//khŏr hâi means someone wishes someone else to do something.

เขาทำให้ฉันหัวเราะ ในขณะเดียวกัน เขาก็ทำให้ฉันร้องไห้

Khǎo tham hâi chǎn hǔa rór, nai khànà diao kan, khǎo kôr tham hâi chǎn ráwng hâi

He makes me laugh; at the same time, he also makes me cry.

::Here:: ทำให้//tham hâi means someone makes someone else do the action.